Is een vliegtuig ooit aangevallen door chemische, biologische, radiologische of nucleaire wapens? Informatiebeveiliging compromissen?

4

Zijn vliegtuigen, militair of civiel, ooit aangevallen door chemische, biologische, radiologische of nucleaire wapens?

Inclusief terroristische aanslagen en testvuuracties. Aanvallen op personen aan boord van het vliegtuig (in plaats van het vliegtuig zelf) inbegrepen.

Informatiebeveiligingsaanvallen op het vliegtuig zelf (zoals computervirussen) zouden ook van belang zijn, hoewel ik storing van communicatie en sensoren zoals radar zal uitsluiten.

Bronnen die ik al heb geraadpleegd:

Definitie van 'chemisch wapen': zeker, explosieven zijn gemaakt van chemicaliën (net als al het andere) maar ik heb het over chemische wapens zoals gedefinieerd door Organisatie voor het verbod op chemische wapens :

The term chemical weapon is applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are also considered weapons themselves.

The toxic chemicals that have been used as chemical weapons, or have been developed for use as chemical weapons, can be categorised as choking, blister, blood, or nerve agents. The most well known agents are as follows: choking agents—chlorine and phosgene, blister agents (or vesicants)—mustard and lewisite, blood agents—hydrogen cyanide, nerve agents—sarin, soman, VX.

Voor 'radiologische wapens' heb ik het niet over zichtbare elektromagnetische straling (licht) of onzichtbare elektromagnetische straling (radio enz.) maar eerder over radiologische verspreidingsapparaten , gedefinieerd door het Amerikaanse ministerie van Defensie als:

any device, including any weapon or equipment, other than a nuclear explosive device, specifically designed to employ radioactive material by disseminating it to cause destruction, damage, or injury by means of the radiation produced by the decay of such material

Ford, J. (maart 1998). Radiologische dispersie: beoordeling van de transnationale dreiging. National Defense University - Institute for National Strategic Studies - Strategic Forum, No. 136. aangehaald in Rickert, Paul R., "The Likely Effect of Radiological Dispersion Device" (2005). Facultaire publicaties en presentaties. Papier 47.

'Biologische wapens' als gedefinieerd door de Verenigde Naties :

Biological weapons are complex systems that disseminate disease-causing organisms or toxins to harm or kill humans, animals or plants. They generally consist of two parts – a weaponized agent and a delivery mechanism. In addition to strategic or tactical military applications, biological weapons can be used for political assassinations, the infection of livestock or agricultural produce to cause food shortages and economic loss, the creation of environmental catastrophes, and the introduction of widespread illness, fear and mistrust among the public.

Almost any disease-causing organism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions or rickettsiae) or toxin (poisons derived from animals, plants or microorganisms, or similar substances produced synthetically) can be used in biological weapons. The agents can be enhanced from their natural state to make them more suitable for mass production, storage, and dissemination as weapons. Historical biological weapons programs have included efforts to produce: aflatoxin; anthrax; botulinum toxin; foot-and-mouth disease; glanders; plague; Q fever; rice blast; ricin; Rocky Mountain spotted fever; smallpox; and tularaemia, among others.

    
reeks A E 04.11.2014 / 20:05

2 antwoord

5

Wat meteen in je opkomt, is de Lockheed XF-90 , een vroege Amerikaanse straaljager, die een zeer sterk en zwaar casco. Om die reden werd het tweede prototype (van slechts twee ooit gebouwd) in 1952 onderworpen aan drie nucleaire bomproeven in de woestijn van Nevada (niet tijdens de vlucht. Het zat op de grond).

Op dit moment, een ongeleide nucleair bewapende lucht-luchtraket, de Douglas AIR-2 Genie , is ontwikkeld en eenmaal getest in 1957 . Verschillende functionarissen van de USAF, stonden onder de testvlek , maar geen vliegtuigen werden gebruikt als doelen. De raket werd afgevuurd door een F-89 Scorpion en kon worden gedragen door de F-101, de F-104 en de F-106.

Het doel van de AIR-2 was om strakke formaties aan te vallen van Tupolev Tu-4 -bommenwerpers in de dagen voordat geleide SAM-raketten beschikbaar waren.

Ik weet zeker dat de Russen hun eigen score van nucleaire tests op vliegtuigen hadden, maar ik weet niets speciaals.

    
antwoord gegeven 04.11.2014 / 21:17
5

Ik heb zelf een paar instanties gevonden:

Radiological

Als onderdeel van de Litvinenko-zaak :

During the investigation into his death it was learned that a number of British Airways aircraft that flew between Moscow and London had been contaminated with the radioactive material [Polonium-210].

... 33,000 passengers potentially exposed ... very low traces ... the risk to public health proved to be low

Bron is Aviation Security International, april 2013

Informatiebeveiliging

In theory, a hacker could use a plane's onboard WiFi signal or inflight entertainment system to hack into its avionics equipment, potentially disrupting or modifying satellite communications, which could interfere with the aircraft's navigation and safety systems, Santamarta said.

He acknowledged that his hacks have only been tested in controlled environments, such as IOActive's Madrid laboratory, and they might be difficult to replicate in the real world. Santamarta said he decided to go public to encourage manufacturers to fix what he saw as risky security flaws.

Representatives for Cobham, Harris, Hughes and Iridium said they had reviewed Santamarta's research and confirmed some of his findings, but downplayed the risks.

Hacker zegt dat passagiersstralen met gevaar voor cyberaanval worden getoond. , Reuters

it's possible to take control of aircraft flight systems and communications using an Android smartphone and some specialized attack code.

Hugo Teso, a security researcher at N.Runs and a commercial airline pilot, spent three years developing the code, buying second-hand commercial flight system software and hardware online and finding vulnerabilities within it. His presentation will cause a few sleepless nights among those with an interest in aircraft security.

Teso's attack code, dubbed SIMON, along with an Android app called PlaneSploit, can take full control of flight systems and the pilot's displays. The hacked aircraft could even be controlled using a smartphone's accelerometer to vary its course and speed by moving the handset about.

"You can use this system to modify approximately everything related to the navigation of the plane," Teso told Forbes. "That includes a lot of nasty things."

Onderzoeker hackt vliegtuigbesturing met Android-smartphone , het register
Zie ook: Conferentiepresentatie van veiligheidsonderzoeker Hugo Teso

De FAA gaf echter een reactie in een verklaring aan journalisten:

The FAA is aware that a German information technology consultant has alleged he has detected a security issue with the Honeywell NZ-2000 Flight Management System (FMS) using only a desktop computer.

The FAA has determined that the hacking technique described during a recent computer security conference does not pose a flight safety concern because it does not work on certified flight hardware.

The described technique cannot engage or control the aircraft’s autopilot system using the FMS or prevent a pilot from overriding the autopilot. Therefore, a hacker cannot obtain “full control of an aircraft” as the technology consultant has claimed.

net als de EASA:

For more than 30 years now, the development of certifiable embedded software has been following strict guidance and best practices that include in particular robustness that is not present on ground-based simulation software.

en apparatuurfabrikant Rockwell Collins:

Today’s certified avionics systems are designed and built with high levels of redundancy and security.

The research by Hugo Teso involves testing with virtual aircraft in a lab environment, which is not analogous to certified aircraft and systems operating in regulated airspace.

FAA en veiligheidswetenschappers staan op gespannen voet met beveiliging tegen hackers , < em> Sophos Naked Security , 16 april 2013

Informatiebeveiliging (?) - drone

Iran beweert een Amerikaanse drone te hebben laten landen door een cyberaanval, in december 2011.

ISTANBUL, TURKEY — Iran guided the CIA's "lost" stealth drone to an intact landing inside hostile territory by exploiting a navigational weakness long-known to the US military, according to an Iranian engineer now working on the captured drone's systems inside Iran.

Iranian electronic warfare specialists were able to cut off communications links of the American bat-wing RQ-170 Sentinel, says the engineer, who works for one of many Iranian military and civilian teams currently trying to unravel the drone’s stealth and intelligence secrets, and who could not be named for his safety.

Using knowledge gleaned from previous downed American drones and a technique proudly claimed by Iranian commanders in September, the Iranian specialists then reconfigured the drone's GPS coordinates to make it land in Iran at what the drone thought was its actual home base in Afghanistan.

link

VS bevestigt dat de drone is neergehaald, maar bevestigt geen succesvolle cyberwarfare-aanval.

link

    
antwoord gegeven 04.11.2014 / 21:36